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[[Image:Books_Generic_other.png|32px|Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]
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'''Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi''', created by [[Effenberg]] and [[Talbot]], is a multi-volume work detailing many notable people and occurrences throughout the history of the [[continent]] and the world in general. Fragments of this fictional book are sometimes used as introductions to stories or chapters in [[Andrzej Sapkowski|Sapkowski]]'s works. It was generally considered to be a piece of [[Nilfgaardian Empire|Nilfgaardian]] propaganda and the information in it is highly selective, subjective and not particularly scientifically rigorous. Those fragments have, so far, apparently featured the following:
   
'''Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi''', created by [[Effenberg]] and [[Talbot]], is a multi-volume work detailing many notable people and occurrences throughout the history of the [[continent]] and the world in general. Fragments of this fictional book are sometimes used as introductions to stories or chapters in Sapkowski's works. It was generally considered to be a piece of [[Nilfgaardian Empire|Nilfgaardian]] propaganda and the information in it is highly selective, subjective and not particularly scientifically rigourous. Those fragments have, so far, apparently featured the following:
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* [[Witcher]]s
  +
* [[Peter Evertsen]]
  +
* [[Dominik Bombastus Houvenaghel]]
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* [[Flourens Delannoy]]
  +
* [[Mandrake]]
  +
* [[Ithlinne]]
  +
* [[Stella Congreve]]
  +
* [[Kerack (city)|Kerack]]
   
:* [[Witcher]]s
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== Excerpts ==
:* [[Peter Evertsen]]
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Kerack''', a city in the northern kingdom of Cidaris, at the mouth of the River Adalatte. Once the capital of the independent kingdom of K., which, as the result of inept governments and the extinction of the royal line, fell into decline, lost its significance and became parcelled up by its neighbours and incorporated into them. It has a port, several factories, a lighthouse and roughly two thousand residents.<br><br>
:* [[Dominik Bombastus Houvenaghel]]
+
Effenberg and Talbot,<br>Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, vol. VIII|citation = {{SoS}} (U.S. edition)}}
:* [[Flourens Delannoy]]
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Congreve''', Estella or Stella, the daughter of Baron Otto de Congreve, espoused to the Count of Liddertal, managed his estates extremely judiciously following his early death, owing to which she amassed a considerable fortune. Enjoying the great estimation of Emperor Emhyr var Emreis (q.v.), she was a greatly important personage at his court. Although she held no position, it was known that the emperor was always in the habit of gracing her voice and opinion with his attention and consideration. Owing to her great affection for the young Empress Cirilla Fiona (see also), whom she loved like her own daughter, she was jokingly called the 'empress mother'. Having survived both the emperor and the empress, she died in 1331, and her immense estate was left in her will to distant relatives, a side branch of the Liddertals called the White Liddertals. They, however, being careless and giddy-headed people, utterly squandered it.<br><br>
:* [[Mandrake]]
 
:* [[Ithlinne]]
 
:* [[Stella Congreve]]
 
   
== Excepts ==
+
Effenberg and Talbot,<br>Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, vol. III|citation = {{TLotL}}}}
Note that these excerpts have been inexpertly translated from the French translation of the original Polish!
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Delannoy''', Flourens, linguist and historian b. 1432 in Vicovaro, in the years 1460– 1475 secretary and librarian to the imperial court. Indefatiguable scholar if legends and folktales, he wrote many treasises considered classics of ancient language and literature of the Empire's northern regions. His most important works are: ''[[Myths and Legends of the Nordlings|Myths and Legends of the Peoples of the North]]''; ''[[Fairy Tales and Stories|Fairy Tales and Stories]]''; ''[[The Surprise, or the Myth of the Elder Blood]]''; ''[[A Saga about a Witcher]]'', and ''[[The Witcher and the Witcher Girl, or the Endless Search]]''. From 1476 professor at the academy in Castell Graupian, where d. 1510.''<br><br>
: '''''Congreve, Estella vel Stella''', – The daughter of Otto of Congreve, married to the old Count Liddertal. Upon the death of the latter, rapidly recovered, she managed her inheritance most judiciously, she amassed for herself a not inconsiderable fortune. Enjoying the esteem of the emperor Emhyr var Emreis (reg.), she was considered a person of great importance by the court. While she had no official duties, it was generally believed that the emperor was in the habit of paying considerable attention to her words and opinions. Because of her close personal relationship with the young Empress Cirilla Fiona (reg.), whom she loved like her own daughter, she was jokingly referred to as the "Imperial mother-in-law". She outlived both the Emperor and the Empress, and died in 1331; as to her huge fortune, it fell to distant relatives on the Liddertal side of the family, called the Whites; being stupid and short-sighted, they squandered every bit of their inheritance.''
 
   
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
+
Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume IV|citation = pg. 267, {{TTotS}} (UK edition)}}
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', tome III</div><br>
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Evertsen, Peter''', b. 1234, confidant of Emperor Emhyr Deithwen and one of the true authors of the Empire's might. The chief chamberlain of the army during the time of the Northern Wars (q.v.), from 1290 imperial treasurer of the crown. In the final period of Emhyr's rule, he was raised to the rank of coadjutor of the Empire. During the rule of Emperor Morvran Voor he was falsely accused of misappropriation of funds, found guilty, imprisoned and died in 1301 in Winneburg Castle. Postumously rehabilitated by Emperor Jan Calveit in 1328.''<br><br>
   
: '''''Delannoy, Flourens''' (1432–1510) – Linguist and historian. Born in Vicovaro, secretary and libraian to the imperial court from 1460 to 1475. Tireless researcher into legends and folklore, author of numerous important treasises considered to be seminal works of linguistic history and literature from the northern regions of the Empire. Among his most important works, one could cite: ''[[Myths and Legends of the Nordlings]]'', ''[[Fairytales and Stories]]'', ''[[Surprise or the Myth of Elder Blood]]'', ''[[The Witcher Saga]]'', as well as ''[[The Witcher and the Witcheress, or a search unending]]''. Beginning in 1476, he officiates as professor at the academy of Castell Graupian where he dies in 1510.''
+
Effenberg and Talbot,<br>Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume V|citation = pg. 199, {{ToC}}}}
  +
{{Block Quote|text = '''Houvenaghel, Dominik Bombastus''', b. 1239, became rich in Ebbing conducting trade on a great scale and settled in Nilfgaard; respected by previous emperors, he was appointed burgrave and director of mines in Venendal by Emperor Jan Calveit, and as reward for services rendered was given the office of mayor of Neveugen. A faithful imperial advisor, '''H.''' had the emperor's favour and also participated in many public affairs. d. 1301. While still in Ebbing, '''H.''' was engaged in numerous charitable works, supported the needy and impoverished, and founded orphanages, hospitals and nurseries, putting up plentiful sums for them. A great enthusiast of the fine arts and sport, he founded a comedic theatre and stadium in the capital, both of which bore his name. He was regarded as a model of probity, honesty and mercantile decency.<br><br>
   
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
+
Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume VII|citation = pg. 111, {{TTotS}} (U.S. edition)}}
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', tome IV</div><br>
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Ithlina''', actually Ithlinne Aegli: daughter of Aevenien, the legendary elven healer, astrologist and soothsayer, famous for her predictions and prophesies, of which Aen Ithlinnespeath, Ithlina'a Prophesy, is the best known. It has been written down many times and published in numerous forms. The prophesy enjoyed great popularity at certain moments, and the commentaries, clues and clarifications appended to it adapted the text to contemporary events, which strengthened convictions about its great clairvoyance. In particular, it is believed '''I.''' predicted the Northern Wars (1239–1268), the Great Plagues (1268, 1272 and 1294), the bloody War of the Two Unicorns (1309–1318) and the Haak Invasion (1350). '''I.''' was also supposed to have prophesied the climactic changes observed from the end of the thirteenth century, known as the Great Frost, which superstition always claimed was a sign of the end of the word and linked to the prophesied coming of the Destroyer (q.v.). This passage from '''I.'s''' Prophecy gave rise to the infamous witch hunts (1272–76) and contributed to the deaths of many women and unfortunate girls mistaken for the incarnation of the Destroyer. Today, '''I.''' is regarded by many scholars as a legendary figure and her 'prophesies' as very recently fabricated apocrypha, and a running literary fraud.''<br><br>
   
: '''''Evertsen, Peter''', born in 1220, confidant of Emperor Emhyr Deithwen and one of the true architects of the power of the Empire. Sergent-in-chief of the army during the Nordling Wars; beginning in 1290. Grand Treasurer of the Crown. Elevated to the rank of co-adjudicator during the final period of the reign of Emhyr. Falsely accused of abuse of power during the reign of Emperor Morvran Voorhis; condamné et emprisonné. Died in 1301 at Winneburg Castle. Postumously rehabilitated in 1328 by emperor Jan Calveit.''
+
Effenberg and Talbot,<br>Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume X|citation = pg. 283, {{BoF}} (UK edition)}}
  +
{{Block Quote|text = '''Mandrake''', or Love Apple, is a class of plant from the Mandragora or nightshade family, a group including herbaceous, stemless plants with parsnip-like roots, in which a similarity to the human form may be observed; the leaves are arranged in a rosette. '''M'''.autumnalis or officinalis, is cultivated on a small scale in Vicovaro, Rowan and Ymlac, rarely found in the wild. Its berries, which are green and later turn yellow, are eaten with vinegar and pepper, while its leaves are consumed raw. The root of the '''m.''', which is a valued ingredient in medicine and herb lore, long ago had great import in superstitions, particularly among the Nordlings; human effigies (called alruniks or alrunes) were carved from it and kept in homes as revered talismans. They were believed to offer protection from illnesses, to bring good fortune during trials, and to ensure fertility and uncomplicated births. The effigies were clad in dresses which were changed at each new moon. '''M.''' roots were bought and sold, with prices reaching as much as sixty florins. Bryony roots (q.v.) were used as substitutes. According to superstition, '''m.''' was used for making spells, magical philtres and poisons. This belief returned during the period of the witch hunts. The charge of the criminal use of '''m.''' was made, for example, during the trial of Lucretia Vigo (q.v). The legendary Philippa Alhard (q.v) was also said to have used '''m.''' as a poison.<br><br>
   
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
+
Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi,<br>Volume IX|citation = pg. 103, {{BoF}} (UK edition)}}
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', Tome V</div><br>
+
{{Block Quote|text = '''Vedymins''', called witchers among the Nordlings (q.v.), a mysterious and elite caste of warrior-priests, probably an offshoot of the druids (q.v.). In the folk consciousness, they are endowed with magical powers and superhuman abilities; '''v.''' were said to fight evil spirits, monsters and all manner of dark forces. In reality, since they were unparalleled in their ability to wield weapons, '''v.''' were used by the rules of the north in the tribal fighting they waged with each other. In combat '''v.''' fell into a trance, brought on, it is believed, by autohypnosis or intoxicating substances, and fought with pure energy, being utterly invulnerable to pain, or even grave wounds, which reinforced the superstitions about their superhuman powers. The theory, according to which '''v.''' were said to have been the products of mutation or genetic engineering, has not found confirmation. '''V.''' are the heroes of numerous Nordling tales (cf. F. Delannoy, ''[[Myths and Legends of the Nordlings]]'').''<br><br>
 
: '''''Houvenaghel, Dominik Bombastus''' (1239–1301) – Became rich in the province of Ebbing by conducting large-scale enterprises; set up business in Nilfgaard. Already respected by previous emperors, he was elevated to the rank of viscount and ''zupparius salis'' of Venendal by Jan Calveit; as reward for services rendered, the office of mayor was awarded. Faithful counsellor to the emperor, Houvenaghel benefitted from his full confidence and took part in many public affairs. Already in Ebbing, he had indulged in many charity ventures, spending considerable sums of money to support the needy and the poor and to build orphanages, hospitals and daycare facilites. A great lover of fine art and sports, he had a theatre and a stadium built in the capital, both of which bore his name. He was a model of propriety, honesty and respectability in mercantile circles.''
 
 
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
 
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', tome VII</div><br>
 
 
: '''''Mandragore''' (également appelée dévergoton) : espèce de plante de la famille des solanacées incluant les plantes herbacées acaules à racines pivotantes pouvant présenter une certaine ressemblance avec des formes humaines ; ses feuilles sont étalées en rosette.''
 
 
: ''La mandragore ''autumnalis'' ou ''officinialis'' est cultivée en petite quantité à Vicovaro, Rowan et Ymlac, on ne la trouve que rarement à l'état sauvage. Elle donne des baies vertes, qui par la suite deviennent jaunes, et que l'on mange assaisonnées de vinaigre et de poivre ; ses feuilles sont utilisées sechées. La racine de mandragore, aujourd'hui appréciée en médecine et en pharmacie, jouait autrefois un rôle important dans les superstitions, surtout chez les peuples nordiques : on sculpait dans ces racines de petites poupées à forme humaine (lea alrounettes, ou alrounes) que l'on conservait dans les maisons comme de vénérables talismans. On leur prêtait le pouvoir de protéger contre les maladies, d'apporter la chance dans les procès, d'assurer aux femmes la fertilité et des accouchements faciles. On les revêtait de robes et, pour chaque pleine lune, on leur mettait un nouvel habit. Les racines de mandragore, dont le prix pouvait atteindre soixante-dix florins, servaient aussi à faire du commerce. Il en allait de même pour les racines de bryones (reg.). D'après les superstitions, la racine de mandragore était utilisée pour les sortilèges et les filtres magiques, mais également pour les poisons. Cette croyance a refait surface à l'époque de la chasse aux magiciennes. L'utilisation à des fins criminelles de la mandragore fut établie notamment lors du procès de Lukrezia Vigo (reg.).''
 
 
: ''La légendaire Filippa Alhard (reg.) devait, elle aussi, utiliser la mandragore à des fins d'empoisonnement.''
 
 
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
 
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', Tome IX</div><br>
 
 
: '''''Itlina''', en réalité Ithlinne Aegli, la fille d'Aevenien, la légendaire elfe guérisseuse, astrologue et devineresse, célèbre pour ses prédictions, divinations et prophéties dont la plus fameuse reste celle d'Aen Ithlinnespeath, dite la prophétie d'Itlina. Répertoriée à maintes reprises et transcrite sous des formes diverses, la prophétie a joui une grande popularité au cours de différentes périodes ; les commentaires, les clefs et les explications la concernamt s'adaptaient aux événements du moment, venant renforcer la convinction du grand don de seconde vue d'Itlina.''
 
 
: ''On présuppose en particulier qu'Itlina avait prédit les Guerres nordiques (1239–1268), les Grandes Pestes (1268, 1272 et 1294), la guerre sanglante des Deux Licornes (1309–1318) et l'invasion des Haaki (1350). Elle aurait également annoncé les changements climatiques observés à partir de la fin du XIII <sup>e</sup> siècle (La Froidure blanche), que les superstitions populaires ont toujour associés au début de la fin du monde et à l'arrivée prophétique de la Destructrice (reg.). Ce fragment de la prophétie d'Itlina fut le déclencheur des infâmes chasses aux magiciennes (1272–1276) et occasionna la mort de nombreuses femmes et de malheureuses jeunes filles, que l'on prenait pour l'incarnation de la Destructrice. Itlina est aujourd'hui considérée par nombre de chercheurs comme un figure légendaire, et ses “prophéties” comme un apocryphe contemporain fabriqué de toutes pièces, une ingénieuse supercherie littéraire.''
 
 
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
 
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', Tome IX</div><br>
 
 
: ''Les '''sourceliens''', ou sorceleurs chez les Nordling, sont une caste élitiste et secrète de prêtres-soldats, fraction de druides vraisemblablement. Dotés, dans l'imaginaire populaire, d'un pouvoir magique et d'aptitudes surhumaines, ils devaient prendre part à la lutte contre les mauvais esprits, les monstres et toutes les forces obscures. En réalité, maîtres dans le maniement des armes, les sourceliens étaient utilisés par les souverains du Nord au cours des luttes tribales que se livraient ces derniers. Pendant le combat, les sourceliens entraient en transe, transes qu'ils provoquaient, suppose-t-on, par l'autohypnose ou des moyens enivrants. Ils luttaient avec une énergie aveugle, car ils étaient totalement insensibles à la douleur et même aux blessures sérieuses, ce qui confronta les exagérations quant à leur puissance surnaturelle. La théorie selon laquelle les sourceliens seraient le résultat d'une mutation ou d'une ingénierie génétique n'a jamais été confirmée. Les sourceliens sont les héros de nombreuses légendes chez les Nordling (see F. Delannoy, ''[[Myths and Legends of the Nordlings]]'').''
 
 
<div style="float:right;">Effenberg and Talbot</div><br>
 
<div style="float:right;">''[[Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi]]'', Tome XV</div><br>
 
 
[[Category:Books mentioned in the novels]]
 
   
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Effenberg and Talbot<br>Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Vol. XV|citation = pg. 1, {{ToC}}}}
 
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[[Category:Books mentioned in the novels]]

Latest revision as of 01:08, December 15, 2018

Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, created by Effenberg and Talbot, is a multi-volume work detailing many notable people and occurrences throughout the history of the continent and the world in general. Fragments of this fictional book are sometimes used as introductions to stories or chapters in Sapkowski's works. It was generally considered to be a piece of Nilfgaardian propaganda and the information in it is highly selective, subjective and not particularly scientifically rigorous. Those fragments have, so far, apparently featured the following:

Excerpts Edit

Kerack, a city in the northern kingdom of Cidaris, at the mouth of the River Adalatte. Once the capital of the independent kingdom of K., which, as the result of inept governments and the extinction of the royal line, fell into decline, lost its significance and became parcelled up by its neighbours and incorporated into them. It has a port, several factories, a lighthouse and roughly two thousand residents.

Effenberg and Talbot,
Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, vol. VIII
Season of Storms (U.S. edition)
Congreve, Estella or Stella, the daughter of Baron Otto de Congreve, espoused to the Count of Liddertal, managed his estates extremely judiciously following his early death, owing to which she amassed a considerable fortune. Enjoying the great estimation of Emperor Emhyr var Emreis (q.v.), she was a greatly important personage at his court. Although she held no position, it was known that the emperor was always in the habit of gracing her voice and opinion with his attention and consideration. Owing to her great affection for the young Empress Cirilla Fiona (see also), whom she loved like her own daughter, she was jokingly called the 'empress mother'. Having survived both the emperor and the empress, she died in 1331, and her immense estate was left in her will to distant relatives, a side branch of the Liddertals called the White Liddertals. They, however, being careless and giddy-headed people, utterly squandered it.

Effenberg and Talbot,
Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, vol. III
Delannoy, Flourens, linguist and historian b. 1432 in Vicovaro, in the years 1460– 1475 secretary and librarian to the imperial court. Indefatiguable scholar if legends and folktales, he wrote many treasises considered classics of ancient language and literature of the Empire's northern regions. His most important works are: Myths and Legends of the Peoples of the North; Fairy Tales and Stories; The Surprise, or the Myth of the Elder Blood; A Saga about a Witcher, and The Witcher and the Witcher Girl, or the Endless Search. From 1476 professor at the academy in Castell Graupian, where d. 1510.

Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume IV
pg. 267, The Tower of the Swallow (UK edition)
Evertsen, Peter, b. 1234, confidant of Emperor Emhyr Deithwen and one of the true authors of the Empire's might. The chief chamberlain of the army during the time of the Northern Wars (q.v.), from 1290 imperial treasurer of the crown. In the final period of Emhyr's rule, he was raised to the rank of coadjutor of the Empire. During the rule of Emperor Morvran Voor he was falsely accused of misappropriation of funds, found guilty, imprisoned and died in 1301 in Winneburg Castle. Postumously rehabilitated by Emperor Jan Calveit in 1328.

Effenberg and Talbot,
Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume V
Houvenaghel, Dominik Bombastus, b. 1239, became rich in Ebbing conducting trade on a great scale and settled in Nilfgaard; respected by previous emperors, he was appointed burgrave and director of mines in Venendal by Emperor Jan Calveit, and as reward for services rendered was given the office of mayor of Neveugen. A faithful imperial advisor, H. had the emperor's favour and also participated in many public affairs. d. 1301. While still in Ebbing, H. was engaged in numerous charitable works, supported the needy and impoverished, and founded orphanages, hospitals and nurseries, putting up plentiful sums for them. A great enthusiast of the fine arts and sport, he founded a comedic theatre and stadium in the capital, both of which bore his name. He was regarded as a model of probity, honesty and mercantile decency.

Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume VII
pg. 111, The Tower of the Swallow (U.S. edition)
Ithlina, actually Ithlinne Aegli: daughter of Aevenien, the legendary elven healer, astrologist and soothsayer, famous for her predictions and prophesies, of which Aen Ithlinnespeath, Ithlina'a Prophesy, is the best known. It has been written down many times and published in numerous forms. The prophesy enjoyed great popularity at certain moments, and the commentaries, clues and clarifications appended to it adapted the text to contemporary events, which strengthened convictions about its great clairvoyance. In particular, it is believed I. predicted the Northern Wars (1239–1268), the Great Plagues (1268, 1272 and 1294), the bloody War of the Two Unicorns (1309–1318) and the Haak Invasion (1350). I. was also supposed to have prophesied the climactic changes observed from the end of the thirteenth century, known as the Great Frost, which superstition always claimed was a sign of the end of the word and linked to the prophesied coming of the Destroyer (q.v.). This passage from I.'s Prophecy gave rise to the infamous witch hunts (1272–76) and contributed to the deaths of many women and unfortunate girls mistaken for the incarnation of the Destroyer. Today, I. is regarded by many scholars as a legendary figure and her 'prophesies' as very recently fabricated apocrypha, and a running literary fraud.

Effenberg and Talbot,
Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Volume X
pg. 283, Baptism of Fire (UK edition)
Mandrake, or Love Apple, is a class of plant from the Mandragora or nightshade family, a group including herbaceous, stemless plants with parsnip-like roots, in which a similarity to the human form may be observed; the leaves are arranged in a rosette. M.autumnalis or officinalis, is cultivated on a small scale in Vicovaro, Rowan and Ymlac, rarely found in the wild. Its berries, which are green and later turn yellow, are eaten with vinegar and pepper, while its leaves are consumed raw. The root of the m., which is a valued ingredient in medicine and herb lore, long ago had great import in superstitions, particularly among the Nordlings; human effigies (called alruniks or alrunes) were carved from it and kept in homes as revered talismans. They were believed to offer protection from illnesses, to bring good fortune during trials, and to ensure fertility and uncomplicated births. The effigies were clad in dresses which were changed at each new moon. M. roots were bought and sold, with prices reaching as much as sixty florins. Bryony roots (q.v.) were used as substitutes. According to superstition, m. was used for making spells, magical philtres and poisons. This belief returned during the period of the witch hunts. The charge of the criminal use of m. was made, for example, during the trial of Lucretia Vigo (q.v). The legendary Philippa Alhard (q.v) was also said to have used m. as a poison.

Effenberg and Talbot, Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi,
Volume IX
pg. 103, Baptism of Fire (UK edition)
Vedymins, called witchers among the Nordlings (q.v.), a mysterious and elite caste of warrior-priests, probably an offshoot of the druids (q.v.). In the folk consciousness, they are endowed with magical powers and superhuman abilities; v. were said to fight evil spirits, monsters and all manner of dark forces. In reality, since they were unparalleled in their ability to wield weapons, v. were used by the rules of the north in the tribal fighting they waged with each other. In combat v. fell into a trance, brought on, it is believed, by autohypnosis or intoxicating substances, and fought with pure energy, being utterly invulnerable to pain, or even grave wounds, which reinforced the superstitions about their superhuman powers. The theory, according to which v. were said to have been the products of mutation or genetic engineering, has not found confirmation. V. are the heroes of numerous Nordling tales (cf. F. Delannoy, Myths and Legends of the Nordlings).

Effenberg and Talbot
Encyclopaedia Maxima Mundi, Vol. XV
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